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Who Killed Cock Robin?

A Silly Symphony

Release Date : June 29, 1935

Running Time : 8:30

Synopsis

A new twist on an old nursery rhyme as the criminal bird court attempts to determine who killed Cock Robin as he wooed his love, Jenny Wren. Robin, it turns out, is not dead, but merely wounded by Cupid's arrow.

Characters

Cock Robin
Jenny Wren
Judge Owl
Crow (unnamed)
Cuckoo (unnamed)
Cupid
Legs Sparrow
Prosecutor

Caricatures

Stephan Fetchit
Harpo Marx
Mae West

Credits

Director
Dave Hand
Animation
Hamilton Luske
Bob Wickersham
Eric Larson
Hardie Gramatky
Gerry "Clyde" Geronomi
Norm Ferguson
Bill Roberts
Dick Lundy
Story
Bill Cottrell
Joe Grant
Music
Frank Churchill
Voices
Martha Wentworth
Billy Bletcher
Leo Cleary
Purv Pullen
Homer Hall Male Quartet
Freeman High Male Quartet

Source

Based on the story "Who Killed Cock Robin?"

Awards

Nominated for an Academy Award (Short Subjects - Cartoons.) The award was won by Three Orphan Kittens.

Cut Scenes

Some black and southern stereotypes were cut as were scenes of police brutality. They have been restored for the current DVD edition.

Video

Germany
Die Drei Kleinen Schweinchen und der Böse Wolf
France
Disney Parade 4
Italy
Paperino e Soci a Caccia di Guai

Laserdiscs

Japan
Disney Cartoon Festival Volume 4

DVD

United States
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies
Germany
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies
France
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies
Italy
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies
Sweden
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies
United Kingdom
Disney Treasures : Silly Symphonies

Television

The Ink and Paint Club: Episode 58: Silly Symphonies Go To the Birds
Walt Disney Presents: More About Silly Symphonies

Technical Specification

Color Type: Technicolor
Animation Type: Standard animation
Sound Mix: Mono
Aspect Ratio: 1.37 : 1
Negative Format: 35mm
Print Format: 35mm
Cinematographic Process: Spherical
Original Language: English

Released by United Artists Pictures

Comments

  • An excerpt from this short was used in the Gaumont-British Picture's production of "The Woman Alone" as well as in the 1936 Alfred Hitchcock film "Sabotage."

From Ryan Kilpatrick at The Disney Film Project : Who Killed Cock Robin? is a delightful short, a fun play on detective stories and possibly even film noir, that manages to take the Disney style and use it in a new way. This is a nice change up for the Silly Symphonies.

If you’re familiar with the story of Cock Robin, this is not a lot like that. Here, Robin is serenading his lady love, Jenny Wren, when he is suddenly struck with an arrow. He falls from the branch he is in to the ground, and the entire town turns out to see his body.

What I love about this sequence is how it plays off of the tropes of detective films of the period. I’m a sucker for old movies, and have been watching on Turner Classic Movies for old film noir or detective films. Just like in those movies, here, the police show up and “round up the usual suspects” from a nearby bar, even though they were nowhere near Cock Robin.

Not only that, you have some stereotypical characters being rounded up, like the hard edged crook with the deep voice, the drunken lout and then a third bird that is a take off on Harpo Marx. The whole thing is very well done, and leads to the courtroom drama.

Again, this is a take off of courtroom dramas and detective films of the time. Here, an owl serves as a judge, while the jury is a chorus that enumerates the sins of the witnesses, who are interrogated by a parrot. The use of the parrot’s natural strut as an intimidation tactic for the witnesses is a fantastic touch.

Eventually, Jenny Wren shows up and demands justice. Jenny’s character is an obvious homage to Mae West, and she woos the entire courtroom instantly. The characterization of Jenny and the courtroom is hilarious, and really draws you into the short.

The big twist, because there always is one in courtroom dramas or detective stories, is that Cock Robin is not dead, but was shot by Cupid’s arrow, and fell on his head. He wakes up, kisses Jenny, and all is well.

I can’t say enough about how great a job the animators did in capturing the mood of a detective story here. From the opening titles in black and white, to the music that could have been silly but is instead played super serious, everything works together. You could call it a parody, but I would say it’s an homage. There is some serious work done here to make this feel real, not silly. Kudos to all those involved for pulling it off.


From Mac : "We're gonna hang 'em all, We're gonna hang 'em all, We don't know who is guilty, so we're gonna hang 'em all!"

A rather dark cartoon, but set in a storybook woodland world we associate with the Silly Symphonies, I can't think of another Disney cartoon like this one. A little bit smarter and slightly more satirical than usual, I agree that this cartoon is a delight.

Another change happening in the Disney cartoons is the title cards. Recently most title cards have been pretty plain – coloured lettering on a grey background - but soon they'll all be handsomely illustrated works of art that carefully set the tone for the short that follows. The mysterious black and white titles with the hanging question mark, we see here, start the trend.


From Michael Barrier.com and reprinted here with his permission. Copyright 2003 by Michael Barrier.) : The earliest trace of Who Killed Cock Robin? is a one-page outline, distributed in the Disney studio in March 1934; the deadline for gag suggestions was March 23. At that point, Wilfred Jackson was scheduled to direct the cartoon. As was usually the case, a fair amount of work had been done on the story before the outline was distributed, although there's no indication of who the writer was.

The outline's version of the story differs considerably from the film, in which most of the action takes place in court. The outline opens with Cock Robin "walking through the bird village, swinging his cane and flirting with all the lady birds." The character was envisioned as the sort of sweet-talking heart-breaker Bing Crosby played in early-thirties features like Going Hollywood: "He is whistling a song, possibly 'When the Blue of the Night'" (Crosby's radio theme song).

There's no hint in the outline that Jenny Wren would be a caricature of Mae West: "We show Cock Robin and Jenny Wren doing a very graceful flying waltz which will be similar to a real waltz in action, but done in the air. This can be a high spot in the picture for graceful action and as a novelty" - the sort of animation set-piece that had been central to the Silly Symphonies in their first several years but was rapidly fading in importance as the Disney people learned how to delineate character and tell stories.

The outline's trial - in contrast to the film, where three birds are arrested, a crow was to have been the only suspect - is presented as a Rashomon-like affair, with Jenny and the crow offering starkly different portrayals of Cock Robin. The crowd at the trial - "true to type," the outline says - lurches back and forth between wanting to lynch the crow and wanting to lynch Cock Robin.

There was to be no comic-romantic ending like the film's, with Dan Cupid turning up to tell the crowd that he fired the arrow that knocked Cock Robin from his perch. Instead, the outline calls for the cartoon to end "with the irate birds chasing Cock Robin out of town, throwing things after him." Ominously, the outline itself ends with this note: "We can use a suggestion for a good gag finish to this picture."

Perhaps because the story was in such a state of disrepair - as skeletal as the outline is, it clearly encompasses more material than could have been accommodated in a seven-minute cartoon - there's no evidence of any further work on Cock Robin for more than six months. But then things speeded up. On November 28, 1934, Bill Cottrell dictated a nineteen-page continuity to a stenographer. Animation was under way a little more than a month later.

Cottrell's continuity includes not just scene breakdowns but also footage estimates for each scene, down to the frame. The action - described in detail, complete with camera moves - is very close to what wound up on the screen, and the dialogue too is very close. Jenny Wren is now explicitly a Mae West caricature, and the other characterizations are likewise in line with those in the film. For example, Dan Cupid: "Cupid has a hysterical laugh like Ed Wynn, and talks in a lisping nance voice. All his actions typify the hand-on-hip, I'll-slap-your-wrist attitude of a nance [an effeminate homosexual]."

A second, seventeen-page Cottrell continuity for Cock Robin, dated January 8, 1935 (the day after the first animation scenes were handed out), differs from the first mainly through the deletion of some gag material for the police patrol wagon as it rushes to the scene of the "crime." (In fact, the later continuity is dated November 28, 1934, on its first page, which a literal-minded secretary apparently retyped.)

Some material that was the same in both continuities was deleted for the finished film, probably for reasons of time, although it's just as well that it was dropped. There was to be an ambulance-chasing lawyer named "Sam Ginsbird," for instance, and the three prisoners were to be really hung, with Dan Cupid's arrow cutting a rope.

Despite such deletions, the satirical flavor in Cottrell's continuity, with the criminal justice system the target, carried over into the film. After Cock Robin's apparent death, the police rush ferociously but indiscriminately into the Old Crow Bar, scooping up suspects with no possible relationship to the "killing" other than being in the wrong place at the wrong time. As the police bring the three suspects to the witness stand, they pound each one on the head repeatedly with their nightsticks. The jury sings, "We don't know who is guilty, so we're going to hang them all." But in the continuity, and in the film, there is a strong operetta flavor, with rhymed dialogue and snatches of patter song, and as a result the satire has no real sting.

(Joe Grant, Cottrell's collaborator on Cock Robin and other Silly Symphonies, offered this explanation for Cottrell's light touch: "Bill, being English, was responsible for the Gilbert and Sullivan approach to it." Cottrell's parents were in fact English; they emigrated to the U.S. around 1900. But he was born in South Bend, Indiana, in 1906.)

It's quite possible or even likely - given the compressed schedule and the way things were being done at the Disney studio in 1934-35 - that there was never a complete storyboard for Cock Robin based on Cottrell's continuity. After the film was made, surviving sketches were assembled, one sketch to a scene, in what the Disney Archives calls a "story sketch book," but the sketches in such books, especially those from the early to mid-thirties, were often preliminary layout drawings, rather than story sketches. Such drawings were made to show how the action was to be staged, rather than put across a story point. The distinction wouldn't have mattered much to anyone using a sketch book then; the books apparently served as ready reference to a film in the days when looking at the film itself was more complicated than popping a videocassette into a VCR.

Some of the drawings in the story sketch book for Cock Robin - like the ones reproduced on page 104 of the original 1973 edition of Christopher Finch's Art of Walt Disney - are relatively finished preliminary layouts. Others are much cruder preliminary layouts; still other drawings look like actual story sketches, many of them by Bob Kuwahara, the first Disney artist whose job was just to draw story sketches (as opposed to being a writer who also drew sketches). In any event, many hands were at work on these sketches. That was not unusual - preliminary layouts in particular might be drawn by the director, the layout man, or someone else in the unit, and story sketches likewise could be contributed by many different people.

In 1986, I talked with Cottrell about his work as the lead writer on the Silly Symphonies, the short cartoons that paved the way for Walt Disney's triumphant early features. For several years, first on the Symphonies and then on part of Snow White, Cottrell wrote and Grant drew, in what Cottrell remembered as most satisfying partnership.

"Joe was great to work with," he said. "Almost every morning, it seemed, he came in with a new drawing that he'd done [the previous] night, or a clay figure. He was interested in the business; he had a lot of enthusiasm for it, and thought about it at home, obviously. ... We were interested in [motion] pictures, and we would see ... all the pictures made by directors who had interesting styles. ... Joe was a good artist, and he contributed so much to the pictures because of his ability to draw and conceive characters."

The Grant-Cottrell team was responsible for a string of successful cartoons, Who Killed Cock Robin? among them. In "Production Notes - Shorts," a memo he wrote late in 1935, Walt Disney singled out Cock Robin as one of the year's "seven definite and outstanding hits," bracketing it with such cartoons as The Band Concert and The Tortoise and the Hare. But something about it still troubled Cottrell, more than fifty years later.

"I wonder," he said, "why we didn't go all-out, with the whole thing, with caricatures all the way through it."

It was a good question. Only one character, Jenny Wren, is an unmistakable caricature, of Mae West. A number of other characters look as if they should be caricatures, but they aren't, not like Jenny Wren. When Cock Robin is shot and falls, he utters three last "a-boos" before "expiring," but that's really just a Crosby reference, from a character who is not a Crosby caricature. As Cottrell noted, "We had the Bing Crosby type of voice for Cock Robin, because he was a crooner of that era, but we didn't caricature him [as Crosby]; I don't know why not."

Other characters suggest Harpo Marx and Stepin Fetchit, but only in the most general terms, and most of the cartoon's all-bird cast resists identification with any particular movie star.

The urge to see a caricature where one was not intended afflicted Alexander Woollcott, a critic who was, as Cottrell said, "a very popular radio man in those days, and wrote for The New Yorker" - and was caricatured more than once in Frank Tashlin's Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. Woollcott "went over to Walt's house for dinner one night," Cottrell said, "and I was invited [Cottrell was Disney's brother-in-law - he was married to Lillian Disney's sister], and he said, 'On that picture Who Killed Cock Robin? who did you have in mind for the judge?'" The judge was an owl, and Woollcott had an owlish appearance, but Disney evidently resisted the temptation to flatter his guest. "Walt, I don't believe, gave him a specific answer," Cottrell said. "I think he kind of evaded it. Woollcott, I think, would have liked for him to have said, 'We had you in mind,' but it wasn't said."

For some reason, Cottrell said, "it just didn't occur to us to say, 'Let's go all out and make this a total caricature picture.' Joe and I talked about it many times afterward, and wondered why we didn't, because Joe was a great caricaturist."

When I spoke with Grant in 1986, a few days after speaking with Cottrell, he laid their hesitation to a practical difficulty, one having to do with the skill level the Disney animators had reached by early 1935. "We had a problem of just exactly who could do the job, to follow through," he said. "At that time, I couldn't make a model sheet of caricatures that would turn and could have that mobility."

This would not have been an empty concern. Less than a year later, Disney made Mickey's Polo Team (released in January 1936), another Cottrell-Grant collaboration, and the screen was filled with Grant's very active caricatures of stars like Laurel and Hardy and Harpo Marx. The animators on that film - principally Art Babbitt, Bill Roberts and Grim Natwick - were by then fully capable of animating "caricatures that would turn and could have that mobility." In early 1935, though, most of the Disney animators were still climbing upwards from the much stiffer caricatures in Mickey's Gala Premiere, the 1933 cartoon for which Grant had drawn caricatures in his debut as a Disney artist.

By sometime late in 1934, David Hand had been assigned to direct Cock Robin. He began handing out scenes to the animators on January 7, 1935; he distributed the last scenes six weeks later, on February 20. As was his wont, Hand had assembled a strong set of animators, and in assigning scenes he cast his strongest animators by character: Ham Luske handled most of Jenny Wren and Cock Robin, Norm Ferguson the owl judge, Bill Roberts the parrot prosecutor, and Dick Lundy Dan Cupid. Animators like Hardie Gramatky and Gerry Geronimi handled scenes with less distinct characters (the stretcher bearers, the police).

By 1935, Disney's best animators had long since assumed responsibilities that at other studios were likely to be in the director's hands. Ferguson spoke in 1936 of how animators might add "some little business which may precede the gag itself but which will serve to strengthen it when it is finally pulled. Such touches may not be developed or worked out in the music room [the Disney term for the director's room] but are inspired as the animator gets into the scene."

For example, Ferguson said, "in Cock Robin, where the [parrot] said, 'What do you say, Judge?' and the judge answered, 'Hang them all.' Originally the judge was just supposed to be standing there when he said, 'Hang them all.' But when I started to work on the scene, the thought occurred to me to have Jenny Wren there making eyes at the judge - the judge deeply interested in Jenny - then the [offscreen] voice, 'What do you say, Judge?' interrupted his attention to Jenny - so he says, 'Hang them all' and turns back to Jenny." Such opportunities were frequent, Ferguson said, and "the animators should take advantage of them."

Ferguson had more than earned the right to exploit such opportunities - he was the first Disney animator whose characters, like Pluto, seemed to have an inner life - but his work was already starting to suffer a little by comparison with that of his peers. His animation of the owl judge feels rather mushy (it was referred to dismissively a few years later, during story work on the owl in Bambi), whereas the parrot prosecutor, animated by Bill Roberts moves much more assuredly in three dimensions. The parrot brings real meaning to the word "stalks" as he walks hunched over with his head thrust forward.

The film's breakthrough character, though, is Jenny Wren, who in Ham Luske's hands moves with a subtlety that was new to Disney animation. Luske offered this capsule description of Jenny's walk when he wrote an outline of animation theory and practice at the end of 1935: "JENNY WREN - floats through her walk. Picks up foot daintily, transfers weight, sways over before putting foot down." In 1938, Luske told a group of his colleagues that a young actress, more than Mae West herself, had been the source of that walk and other true-to-life mannerisms. "This young girl had studied Mae West and knew her character and personality," he said. "Although she was accustomed to the stage and did things that Mae West herself didn't do ... she was darned good. We obtained several pictures of Mae West [presumably films in which West starred] and found that we didn't get as much out of her acting in the pictures as we did out of the girl's imitation."

Luske, although a highly meticulous animator in some respects, wasn't one in other ways. As Mark Kausler has pointed out to me, he could be careless about the synchronization of dialogue and mouth movements. Where Jenny Wren is concerned, though, the voice, the character design, and the movements fit together so well that any failings in lip-sync simply don't matter much. For the first time in Disney animation, in Luske's handling of Jenny, there's visible some of the precision and fluidity that would make possible the animation not just of convincing caricatures, but of characters who could hold an audience's attention for the length of a feature.


From Jerry Edwards : I have never seen the uncensored version shown on the Disney Channel. Violence (police brutality) is also censored. I enjoy this unusual version of the classic rhyme with Jenny Wren as the caricature of Mae West. But Cupid's voice really irritates me with the high-pitched tone.
From Jeremy Fassler : One of my favorite shorts. I like the parodies on Harpo Marx and Mae West. Jenny Wren should've been in more Silly Symphonies. The short hasn't been available to the public in a very long time, and for many years, it was considered lost.
From Ryan : This is one of my favorite Silly Symphony shorts. I enjoy the animation and the background art as well as Jenny Wren's caricature of actress Mae West. There was another celebrity caricature: a crazy bird was drawn like one of the Marx Bros. The court scene is very funny for me, especially with some of the witnesses.
From Candy : I loved this cartoon for its un-Disney-like violence. I have probably seen the edited version of it, but it still suggested some violence when the cops went into the bar and started hitting people on the head. I read somewhere that this cartoon was criticized by the censors of the time for being too violent. I especially liked the character of Jenny Wren, a bird version of Mae West. I read in Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life that Mae West actually wrote to Walt and told him that he did a good job of caricaturing her in this cartoon. Jenny Wren might have been one of the first really sexy Disney characters. She's drawn in a very sexy way. There's even a suggestion of cleavage. She walks very slowly and seductively, swinging her hips from side to side. She seems to come on to the Judge Owl in order to persuade him to hang all the birds that have been arrested.

Also, the Cupid Bird always seemed kind of gay to me. I knew it wasn't my imagination. The writer who submitted the article about this cartoon, Michael Barrier, said that this Cupid Bird was portrayed as gay. The bird is male, yet he acts very feminine. He stands in a feminine pose, with a hand on his hip. He giggles and talks with a lisp. It's amazing that that got in there. I was under the impression that Hollywood never portrayed gay characters in an obvious way during this time. And to think that Disney portrayed an obvious gay character in this cartoon. I've always wondered about that character, and another Disney person confirmed it for me; yeah, that bird is gay. There's a book about the gay community's relationship to the Disney Company; Tinker Belles and Evil Queens by Sean Griffin. I'm not trying to push any kind of agenda; I'm just throwing it out there for everyone's information.


From Sandra Schwartz : I haven't seen Who Killed Cock Robin since I was a child but I have the most wonderful memories of it. I would like to rate it a 10. The drawings are really cute and adventurous. I loved the cartoon and I still do.
From Dino Cencia : In the beginning, I thought that Cock Robin was dead, but he wasn't. I give this a 607.
From Baruch Weiss : This is a very nice short. I enjoyed the character Jenny Wren. She made two more appearances: a cameo in Mickey's Polo Team and Toby Tortoise Returns.
From Matthew Cooper : On the DVD I have, the police club-bashing and the stereotypes are still there so I have seen this short the original way it was made. My favorite thing about it is the characters (Jenny-Wren is sooooooooo Mae West,) I wonder if she posed for the Disney-Artists when they were drawing her caricature? I also like the trial scene (especially the song "We're Gonna Hang Em' All.) The only thing I don't like is that the jury members all look the same. Oh well, I guess that if they didn't, Disney would have spent too much time on making this cartoon.
From Gijs Grob : Who Killed Cock Robin? is a musical mystery very loosely based on the nursery rhyme of the same name. Its source material notwithstanding Who Killed Cock Robin is the most adult Silly Symphony ever made. True to the Silly symphony concept, all characters either sing or speak in rhyme (with Jenny Wren's sensual blues as a highlight), but in a bare seven minutes the cartoon manages to mock the law, racialism and gay people, while displaying an unusual eroticism through Jenny Wren, who is a very fine caricature of famous Hollywood actress Mae West. These features are especially striking when one bears in mind that the Union Code was already active in 1935. Due to his self-censorship sex and violence were banned from the movies. To illustrate its effect: due to this code an erotic cartoon character as Betty Boop had to be tuned down and was turned into a goody-goody and quite a bland character. Yet, Who Killed Cock Robin displays its satire and eroticism in full glory.

When Cock Robin has been shot by a mysterious shadow, the Keystone Cop-like police randomly arrests some bystanders: a tough-looking guy, a black bird (blacks were easily arrested just because of their colour) and a cuckoo who resembles Harpo Marx. They're treated very roughly, being knocked by the cops almost all the time. And when Jenny exclaims that justice should be done, the judge simply orders to hang all verdicts even though nobody knows who's guilty! It's Cupid, an obvious caricature of a homosexual, who prevents this cruel sentence. Cock Robin appears to be alive, and finally he and Jenny Wren reunite in a hot kiss. Thus ends one of the most spectacular cartoons of the nineteen thirties.


From Condor : Sort of like a Disney version of a whodunit with all the suspects and the happy ending because Robin's not really dead, just wounded. Great color and worth an award nomination.

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